Bioenergy occupies a unique position at the nexus of energy, environment, climate change and rural development agendas. Consequently, bioenergy and biofuels in particular, have seen
record levels of support in the form of subsidies, mandates and investments as governments seek to maximize the perceived synergies between the various opportunities offered by bioenergy. Whilst it is true that well- planned bioenergy development can reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a range of sources, increase rural incomes, reduce waste, improve access
to energy, and improve overall energy security and independence - the reality is that current expansion of production, particularly of first-generation liquid biofuels, is increasingly cause for concern.